The church Nuestra Señora de Belén in the Parish of San Pedro Telmo, after which the San Pedro neighbourhood is named, is one of the oldest in the city. Work began in 1735 under jesuit architects Andrea Bianchi and Juan Prímoli, alongside laymen Antonio Masella and José Schmidt.
After the expulsion of the jesuits, the Bethlemite religious order continued the work. Restoration work was carried out in 1942 and the cloisters were restored in the year 2000.
The current museum has pieces dating back over 200 years.