The land where this church was built was given to the Dominican religious order at the start of the 18th century. Construction of the church began in 1751 under the direction of the architect Antonio Masella from Turin, Italy, but was not finished until the end of the 18th century.
The western tower was added in 1856, and at the start of the 20th century the mausoleum of Argentine independence hero General Manuel Belgrano was added in front of the church. The mausoleum is the work of Italian sculptor Ettore Ximenes.
British soldiers took refuge in this church during their attempted invasion of the city in 1807, and flags captured from the British forces still remain inside the church, as well as a pair of emblems that General Belgrano captured from the Spanish royalist army and then offered to the Virgin Mary.